E. Tory Higgins
Value From Hedonic Experience and Engagement
Recognizing that value involves experiencing pleasure or pain is critical to understanding the psychology
of value. But hedonic experience is not enough. I propose that it is also necessary to recognize that
strength of engagement can contribute to experienced value through its contribution to the experience of
motivational force — an experience of the intensity of the force of attraction to or repulsion from the value
target. The subjective pleasure/pain properties of a value target influence strength of engagement, but
factors separate from the hedonic properties of the value target also influence engagement strength and
thus contribute to the experience of attraction or repulsion. These additional sources of engagement
strength include opposition to interfering forces, overcoming personal resistance, using the right or
proper means of goal pursuit, and regulatory fit between the orientation and manner of goal pursuit.
Implications of the contribution of engagement strength to value are discussed for judgment and decision
making, persuasion, and emotional experiences.
Source: Psychological Review
Tory Higgins, E. "Value From Hedonic Experience and Engagement." Psychological Review 113, no. 3 (2006): 439-460.