“Independence from Whom? Interdependence with Whom? Cultural Perspectives on Ingroups Versus Outgroups”
Coauthor(s): Mark R. Lepper, Lee Ross.
Editors: Deborah A. Prentice and Dale T. Miller
Documents cultural differences in how individuals represent the social
world. The authors' primary claim is that in European American cultural
contexts the boundary between the self and another person (any other
person) is primary, whereas in East Asian cultures the boundary between
the ingroup (the self and other members of important groups) and the
outgroup is primary. To test this claim, they adapted a number of
research paradigms that have been used to demonstrate self-other
differences among members of Western cultures and added a distinction
between ingroup and outgroup others. For example, their 1st study was
concerned with trait ascription. Previous research has shown that
Westerners assign more traits to others than to self. The authors asked students of Caucasian and Asian descent to assign traits to self, an ingroup member, and an outgroup member. Results show that Caucasian students assigned fewer traits to self and ingroup members than to outgroup members. A similar pattern was shown for attributional charity (Asian students show charity to ingroup members as well as self) and for intrinsic motivation (Asian students are intrinsically motivated by ingroup member choices as well as their own).
Source: Cultural Divides: Understanding and Overcoming Group Conflict
Iyengar, Sheena, Mark R. Lepper, and Lee Ross. "Independence from Whom? Interdependence with Whom? Cultural Perspectives on Ingroups Versus Outgroups." In Cultural Divides: Understanding and Overcoming Group Conflict. Ed. Deborah A. Prentice and Dale T. Miller. New York: Russell Sage, 1999.
Place: New York