E. Tory Higgins
Regulatory Focus and the Probability Estimates of Conjunctive and Disjunctive Events
Coauthor(s): Joel Brockner, Srikanth Paruchuri, Lorraine Idson.
Prior research has shown that people overestimate the likelihood of conjunctive events and underestimate the likelihood of disjunctive events. We evaluated whether people's regulatory focus success was related to the magnitude of these judgmental biases. Regulatory focus theory posits that people are guided by two distinct motivational systems - promotion focus and prevention focus. When people are promotion focused they attempt to bring their actual selves into alignment with their ideal selves (standards reflecting wishes and aspirations). When people are prevention focused they attempt to bring their actual selves into alignment with their ought selves (standards reflecting duties and obligations). As predicted, promotion success (i.e., congruence between actual and ideal selves) was positively related to the accuracy of disjunctive probability estimates, whereas prevention success (i.e., congruence between actual and ought selves) was not. Also as predicted, greater prevention success led to more accurate conjunctive probability estimates, whereas greater promotion success did not.
Source: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
Brockner, Joel, Srikanth Paruchuri, Lorraine Idson, and E. Tory Higgins. "Regulatory Focus and the Probability Estimates of Conjunctive and Disjunctive Events." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 87, no. 1 (January 2002): 5-24.