Geert Bekaert

Why Stocks May Disappoint

Coauthor(s): Andrew Ang, Jun Liu.


We provide a formal treatment of both static and dynamic portfolio choice using the Disappointment Aversion preferences of Gul (1991. Econometrica 59(3), 667-686), which imply asymmetric aversion to gains versus losses. Our dynamic formulation nests the standard CRRA asset allocation problem as a special case. Using realistic data generating processes, we find reasonable equity portfolio allocations for disappointment averse investors with utility functions exhibiting low curvature. Moderate variation in parameters can robustly generate substantial cross-sectional variation in portfolio holdings, including optimal non-participation in the stock market.

The final version of this article may be found at

Source: Journal of Financial Economics
Exact Citation:
Bekaert, Geert, Andrew Ang, and Jun Liu. "Why Stocks May Disappoint." Journal of Financial Economics 76, no. 3 (June 2005): 471-508.
Volume: 76
Number: 3
Pages: 471-508
Date: 6 2005